This report provides the results of the study undertaken by International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) in partnership with Center for Research on Environment, Health and Population Activities (CREHPA) in Nepal and Institute for Social Development Studies (ISDS), Vietnam. The study was commissioned by UNFPA, Asia and Pacific Regional Office, Bangkok and funded by Australian Government, AusAID. The objective of the study was to explore the gender norms, masculine behavior and attitude towards son preference in Nepal and Vietnam. This study was first of its kind in both countries that explored men’s attitudes on a wide range of issues related to gender equality, son preference, the levels and types of intimate partner violence and knowledge and attitude towards laws and policies related to women’s right. The study affirms that high son-preference, conservative gender roles and inequitable attitudes persist in both countries.