Asia

A Mother’s Death Costs the Family Dear

Fri, 04/18/2014
IRIN

Maternal mortality takes a clear physical and emotional toll on families worldwide, but what's the economic cost? ICRW research on the high economic cost of maternal mortality in Kenya is featured in IRIN's article on how important maternal health is to families and economies.

Maternal mortality takes a clear physical and emotional toll on families worldwide, but what's the economic cost? ICRW research on the high economic cost of maternal mortality in Kenya is featured in IRIN's article on how important maternal health is to families and economies.

Impact on Marriage: Program Assessment of Conditional Cash Transfers

Impact on Marriage: Program Assessment of Conditional Cash Transfers

Priya Nanda, Nitin Datta, Priya Das
2014

In India, in addition to having a laws and many large civil society programs to delay early marriage, the government over the past fifteen years has initiated multiple national and state sponsored conditional cash transfer3,4 (CCT) programs with the direct or indirect aim of delaying marriage among girls (Sekher 2010).
 
The first such program was called Apni Beti Apna Dhan (ABAD), or “Our Daughter, Our Wealth.” Developed by the Government of Haryana in 1994, the scheme aspired to enhance the value of girls. ABAD, which operated between 1994 to 1998, is one of the first CCTs targeting girls, implemented systematically by an Indian state. To our knowledge ABAD is also unique among all large-scale CCT interventions in India, in that beneficiaries faced a protracted 18-year period before receiving any cash transfer, as the conditionality was explicitly based on delayed marriage.
 
The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) designed a rigorous evaluation of the ABAD program and collected data from beneficiaries and comparable non-beneficiaries in 2012, just prior to them turning 18. A second round of data will be collected in 2014, after the older girls have reached 18, to measure the effect on delayed marriage as well as to understand the cashing out process and how the benefit has been used. This research brief describes the findings from the first survey implemented in 2012-2013. The main outcome of interest is the educational attainment of beneficiary girls versus comparable non-beneficiary girls.
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We encourage the use and dissemination of our publications for non-commercial, educational purposes. Portions may be reproduced with acknowledgment to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). For questions, please contact publications@icrw.org; or (202) 797-0007.

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Safe Cities Free From Violence Against Women and Girls: Baseline Finding from the "Safe Cities Delhi Programme"

Safe Cities Free From Violence Against Women and Girls: Baseline Finding from the "Safe Cities Delhi Programme"

Nandita Bhatla, Pranita Achyut, Sancheeta Ghosh, Abhishek Gautam, Ravi Verma
2013

In 2010, UN Women launched the “Global Programme on Safe Cities Free of Violence against Women and Girls,” in partnership with UN-Habitat, leading women’s organizations, and global and local partners in five pilot cities across the world, including Delhi. The aim was to prevent sexual violence in public spaces. The Safe City Delhi Programme is a collaborative effort by UN Women, UN Habitat, the Government of Delhi and the Indian non-governmental organization, Jagori. The International Center for Research on Women is the evaluation partner.

The first systematic household survey on sexual violence in public spaces was conducted in October and November 2012 as part of the evaluation of the Safe Cities programme. The programme baseline survey establishes key benchmark indicators of perceptions, attitudes and behaviours related to sexual violence that will be used in assessing progress after the first two-year phase of this pilot programme.

For the purposes of this study, we asked about a broad range of behaviors and divided the responses into five categories: 1) Sexual harassment (Sexual comments and jokes, whistling, leering or obscene gestures), 2)Flashing/exposing of men’s genitalia, 3)Stalking, 4) touching or groping women’s breasts or buttocks, and 5)sexual assault. (in this context referring to physically aggressive sexual attack) 

(12.77 MB)

We encourage the use and dissemination of our publications for non-commercial, educational purposes. Portions may be reproduced with acknowledgment to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). For questions, please contact publications@icrw.org; or (202) 797-0007.

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Why tensions are soaring in Mother (in-law) India

Mon, 02/17/2014
TheStar.com

TheStar.com interviews ICRW's Nandita Bhatla, a senior technical specialist, about the domestic violence women face from their in-laws.  

TheStar.com interviews ICRW's Nandita Bhatla, a senior technical specialist, about the domestic violence women face from their in-laws in India.

Fertility Awareness for Community Transformation (FACT)

ICRW is working with the Institute for Reproductive Health (IRH) at Georgetown University, Population Media Center and Save the Children on the USAID-funded Fertility Awareness for Community Transformation (FACT) Project, which aims to improve fertility awareness and expand family planning access in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia through communicating actionable, life-course-appropriate information about fertility, enabling individuals and couples to apply this knowledge to their own circumstances and needs. ICRW will work with the FACT team to integrate gender considerations into all aspects of the project, which will, in part, contribute to a greater understanding of whether and how expanding access to fertility awareness-based methods allows for greater uptake of family planning and reduces unintended pregnancies.

Duration: 
2013 - 2018

Violence Against Single Women: Access to Justice and Entitlements

This research project aims to strengthen the evidence base on single women’s experience of violence and violation of their rights, their use of relevant laws and policies in seeking justice, and the strengths and shortcomings of existing policies and programs to address their needs in India.  In the context of this research, single women consist of never married, separated, widowed and divorced women.

ICRW researchers are collecting quantitative and qualitative data from single women and service providers in three states – Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh and Maharashtra.  This information will be used to produce a fact sheet and policy brief that describe the situation and lay out policy and program recommendations for government and civil society to better meet the needs of this particularly vulnerable, yet often overloooked, group of women.  

Duration: 
2013 - 2014
Location(s): 
India

Combatting Practices Harmful to Women and Girls in Nepal

Empowering women and girls is not only the right and fair thing to do, it also makes economic sense. Countries that invest in promoting the social and economic status of women tend to have lower poverty rates than those that do little to address gender inequality.

In many countries, harmful practices, such as child marriage, increase the discrimination and stigmatization of women and girls at different stages of their lives, contributing to their marginalization and low social and economic status.

Working in partnership with UNFPA Nepal, ICRW is documenting and analyzing key harmful practices in the country, and based on this information, formulating strategies to combat them by engaging men and boys, parents and communities.

Duration: 
2013 - 2014
Location(s): 
Nepal

Child Marriage in South Asia: Realities, Responses and the Way Forward

Child Marriage in South Asia: Realities, Responses and the Way Forward

Tina Khanna, Ravi Verma and Ellen Weiss
2013

Child marriage is a serious human rights crisis and one of the most pressing development concerns in the world today. Defined as marriage under the age of 18, child marriage disproportionately and negatively affects girls who are more likely to be married as children than boys.  Currently over 60 million girls and women are affected by child marriage globally.  Child marriage is particularly pervasive across South Asia and Africa, where 50-70 percent of girls in some countries are married before the age of 18.

This technical note highlights the prevalence of child marriage in South Asia and its adverse social, health and developmental impacts on girls’ lives. It reviews legislative and other responses in the form of government policies and frameworks as well as programs adopted by different South Asian countries to address child marriage. Additionally it offers a way forward for both policy makers and development practitioners in terms of policy and program recommendations to eliminate child marriage in the region. 

(873.61 KB)

We encourage the use and dissemination of our publications for non-commercial, educational purposes. Portions may be reproduced with acknowledgment to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). For questions, please contact publications@icrw.org; or (202) 797-0007.

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Masculinity, Son Preference & Intimate Partner Violence

Masculinity, Son Preference & Intimate Partner Violence

Priya Nanda, Abishek Gautam, Ravi Verma, Sanjay Kumar and Dhanashri Brahme
2013

A preference for sons over daughters has a detrimental impact on women's and girls' health and well being.  It also affects society by driving gender-biased, sex selection resulting in a skewed ratio of females to males at birth in favor of males.

This report presents the findings of a large-scale study that examines men’s and women’s underlying attitudes and behaviors around son preference, with a particular focus on how they conceptualize manhood and masculinity.  The study was conducted in seven Indian states (Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh) involving more than nine thousand men and three thousand women, aged 18-49.  The study identified key factors that influence men’s views about masculinity, as measured by their support for gender equality and control of women’s behaviour, and how these views impact on their preference for sons and perpetration of intimate partner violence.  

(700.06 KB)

We encourage the use and dissemination of our publications for non-commercial, educational purposes. Portions may be reproduced with acknowledgment to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). For questions, please contact publications@icrw.org; or (202) 797-0007.

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Son Preference in India

In India, gender inequality manifests in many different ways, including a preference for sons over daughters.  Girl’s lack of value and son preference are key drivers of gender-biased sex selection at birth, which is responsible for skewing India’s female to male sex ratio in favor of boys.  

This large-scale study examines men’s and women’s underlying attitudes and behaviors around son preference, with a particular focus on how they conceptualize manhood and masculinity.  The study is being carried out in seven Indian states (Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh) involving more than nine thousand men and three thousand women, ages 18 to 49.  The study looks at what factors influence men’s views about masculinity, as measured by their support for gender equality and control of women’s behaviour, and how these views about masculinity impact on their preference for sons and perpetration of intimate partner violence.  

Duration: 
January 2013 - December 2013
Location(s): 
India
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