UNFPA Press Release: UNFPA-ICRW Study Deconstructs The Mind Of The ‘Masculine’ Indian Male

Tue, 11/11/2014

 UNFPA Press Release

A new study, ‘Masculinity, Intimate Partner Violence and Son Preference in India’, by the United Nations Population Fund, UNFPA, and the International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) explores how the average Indian male interprets the idea of ‘masculinity’ and how that shapes his interactions with women and increases his desire for sons.

The study explores two areas that are particularly important in the Indian context: intimate partner violence and son preference. It is well-established that Indian women face social and familial pressures to produce sons, and the failure to do so increases the threat of violence and abandonment in marriage.

Indeed, not all men think, feel or respond in the same way, which is why the study uses a masculinity index to measure the degree of behavioural rigidity, based on the levels of control men practice in intimate relationship and their attitudes towards gender equality.

According to Frederika Meijer, UNFPA India Representative, “Gendered ideas of masculinity and childhood experiences are significant contributing factors behind men using violence. This research identifies alternative expressions of masculinity that offer pointers to effectively engage men and boys in achieving gender equality. It identifies triggers that could enable them to become change agents in addressing gender discrimination.”

Results from the 9,205 men interviewed show that the average India man is convinced that masculinity is about acting tough, freely exercising his privilege to lay down the rules in personal relationships, and, above all, controlling women.

Take a look:

  • One-in-three men surveyed didn’t allow their wives to the wear clothes of their choice.
  • Sixty-six per cent men believed that they had “a greater say than their wife/partner in the important decisions that affect us”.
  • 75 per cent men expected their partners to agree to sex. Moreover, over 50 per cent men didn’t expect their partners to use contraceptives without their permission.

Clearly, “being a real man” is characterised by authority, while a woman has to prove her femininity with qualities of “tolerance and acceptance”. The study shows that often a departure from these mannerisms could provoke a violent reaction from men.

Sure enough, the study shows a very high prevalence of intimate partner violence in India. Around two-out-of-five men from the seven study states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya

Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Odisha, and Punjab and Haryana were found to be ‘rigidly masculine’ in their attitude and behaviour, as they firmly stated that women should neither be seen nor heard.

What’s more, 60 per cent admitted to using violence to assert their dominance over their partner if she wanted to step out of her traditional roles or was unable to meet the expectation of bearing a son. In fact, more than half - 52 per cent - of the 3,158 women surveyed talked about experiencing some form of violence during their lifetime, with 38 per cent suffering physical violence, including being kicked, beaten, slapped, choked and burned, and 35 per cent were subjected to emotional violence, including insults, intimidation and threats. While Odisha and Uttar Pradesh emerged as the states with the highest incidence of intimate partner violence at 75 per cent, Punjab and Haryana followed at 43 per cent and Maharashtra at 37 per cent.

“The study reaffirms and demonstrates that addressing inequitable gender norms and masculinity issues are at the heart of tackling root causes of intimate partner violence and son preference,” states Luis Mora, Chief, Gender-Human Rights and Culture, UNFPA.

If men with discriminatory gender views are more inclined to physically abusing their partner, then they are also the ones more likely to want sons, affirms the study. Boys are preferred in many Indian families as they stand to inherit property, carry forward the family lineage and participate in specific religious rituals. Census 2011 data reveals the child sex ratio in the country has dropped from 927 girls per 1,000 boys to an all-time low of 918. Examining the extent of son preference, the study measured daughter discrimination and finds that over a third of the men and women show both high daughter discriminatory and son preferring attitudes.

Undoubtedly, the traditional construct of masculinity increases the tendency for violence and son preference among men. In order to be able to enlist them to become a part of the solution and not the problem, a couple of factors need to be taken into account. Firstly, the study catalogues economic stress as a major trigger for both violence against women and the desire for sons. A crisis that threatens their position as the primary providers at times prompts them to use violence to gain control. Simultaneously, it reiterates their belief that more male children can guarantee better financial security.

The other aspect that plays an essential part in intensifying conventional masculine attitudes is childhood experiences. The more men witness their father exercising greater control at home in their formative years, the less likely they are to develop gender equitable attitudes. Says Ravi Verma, Regional Director, ICRW-Asia, “The findings of the study are extremely clear on lasting impact of the childhood experiences. It is high time we begin to seriously think how we wish to bring up our boys and also present ourselves as adults to younger ones within the families.”

The Masculinity study makes an urgent call for developing policies that build men’s confidence to behave differently. Two solutions that offer promise of real transformation are: breaking the cycle of discrimination by reaching out to young boys with alternative ideas of masculinity, that are not based on power or authority; and ensuring quality education for both sexes along with ensuring women’s access to income.

Mission Statement: 

UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, is the lead UN agency for delivering a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe, and every young person's potential is fulfilled. UNFPA expands the possibilities for women and young people to lead healthy and productive lives. UNFPA started working in 1969, the number – and rate – of women dying from complications of pregnancy or childbirth has been halved. Families are smaller and healthier. Young people are more connected and empowered than ever before.

Masculinity, Intimate Partner Violence and Son Preference in India

Masculinity, Intimate Partner Violence and Son Preference in India

Priya Nanda, Abhishek Gautam, RaviVerma, Aarushi Khanna, Nizamuddin Khan, Dhanashri Brahme, Shobhana Boyle & Sanjay Kumar

In-depth research on gender, power and masculinity and various programmatic efforts to engage men have made it abundantly clear that men and boys must be an integral part of efforts to promote gender equality. This is especially relevant in India, where caste, class and linguistic ethnicity have tremendous influence on how men construct their sense of masculinity and define what it means to be a “real man” or what is expected of them. Recent research suggests that men’s attitudes and more broadly, masculinity, perpetuate son preference and to some extent, intimate partner violence in India.
With this in mind, ICRW conducted research, surveying a total of 9,205 men and 3,158 women, aged 18-49 in the following seven states across India: Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.
The study findings emphasize that in India, masculinity, i.e., men’s controlling behavior and gender inequitable attitudes, strongly determines men’s preference for sons over daughters as well as their proclivity for violence towards an intimate partner – both of which are manifestations of gender inequality. Masculine control in women’s lives affects their own experiences of intimate partner violence and preference for sons. The study finds that ultimately eliminate son preference and intimate partner violence in India, it is critical to develop and implement national policies and programs that involve men in promoting gender equity and diminishing socio-cultural and religious practices thatreinforce gender discrimination.
(1.96 MB)

We encourage the use and dissemination of our publications for non-commercial, educational purposes. Portions may be reproduced with acknowledgment to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). For questions, please contact; or (202) 797-0007.

Terms and Conditions »

Expanding Effective Contraceptive Options (EECO)

Around the world, more than 220 million women have an unmet need for modern family planning. Nearly half of these women cite method-related reasons for non-use. In order to address the need for new and improved contraceptive methods, ICRW is working with Women Care Global, Evofem Population Services International (PSI), and Everyone Mobile (E1M) to provide women with new women-initiated methods of contraceptives so they can prevent unplanned pregnancy and protect their health.

ICRW will serve as the research partner and will conduct research with potential users of these new methods, initially in Malawi, India, and Zambia. ICRW will then provide partners, and health care providers with research findings in order to better understand decision-making around contraceptive use, product accessibility, and potential barriers to using these new products.


How Empowering Girls Can Help End Child Marriage

Mon, 09/15/2014
Trust Women

In a piece for the Trust Women website, ICRW's Ann Warner, Senior Youth and Gender Specialist, writes about a new ICRW report exhibiting how empowering girls can help end child marriage, highlighting case studies from four countries.

In a piece for the Trust Women website, ICRW's Ann Warner, Senior Youth and Gender Specialist, writes about a new ICRW report exhibiting how empowering girls can help end child marriage, highlighting case studies from four countries.

Prevention of HIV/STI Risk/Vulnerability Among Married Women Through Integration Within Primary Health Care in India

Prevention of HIV/STI Risk/Vulnerability Among Married Women Through Integration Within Primary Health Care in India


Worldwide, India ranks third in terms of the number of people live with HIV, affecting 2.1 million people according to recent estimates. Programming efforts aimed at vulnerable populations, including sex workers, men who have sex with men, injecting drugs users, and truckers, have resulted in a decline in the HIV incidence rate. Building off of that success, the National AIDS Control Program (NACP) is working to further accelerate progress in decreasing the transmission of HIV, by targeting increases in low prevalence states, including through spousal transmission.

The RISHTA project, which means “relationship” in Hindi and Urdu, was conducted in a typical low-income urban community of around 600,000 people in the northeast quadrant of Mumbai City, India and was built on relevant, culturally-based attitudes and behaviors related to sexual health. The project targeted married women who, around the world and in India, are at high risk for contracting HIV by being married to men who participate in high-risk sexual behaviors.

The RISHTA project looks at the following questions:

  1. How can we identify the women are most vulnerable to HIV/STI transmission within marriage?
  2. What approaches can help to reduce married women’s risk?
  3. What outcomes indicators should we use to measure the program’s success?

The following project brief outlines a model for HIV/STI risk/vulnerability reduction for married women by addressing a wide range of psychosocial, marital, and sexual risk factors by integrating counseling and education with primary care through community intervention and education programs.

A video highlighting program participants and benefits of the RISHTA project can be found here.

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We encourage the use and dissemination of our publications for non-commercial, educational purposes. Portions may be reproduced with acknowledgment to the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW). For questions, please contact; or (202) 797-0007.

Terms and Conditions »

RISHTA Helps Married Women Access Comprehensive Health Care in Mumbai

Ravi Verma, Regional Director of ICRW's Asia Regional Office, is featured in this powerful video about the RISHTA program, designed to ensure that married women in the poorest sections of Mumbai have access to comprehensive, quality sexual health services that meet their needs.

To read the full report on RISHTA, click here.

District Level Study on Child Marriage in India

The overall rate of marriage for Indian girls in their late adolescence remains high, despite improved socio-economic conditions and increased legislation encouraging delayed marriage in India. On top of that, within the country, there are significant variations of marriage rates between regions. For example, over 50 percent of women in Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Bihar are married before the age of 18 compared to only 20 percent in Goa, Kerala, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir. Part of this regional variation can be explained by differences in cultural marriage practices, but that is not the whole story. While there is a breadth of data available on early marriage in India, there have not been sufficient investigations assessing which geographic areas within India are demonstrating a measurable change in instances of childhood marriage.
This project will aim to map existing quantitative data about childhood marriage in order to illuminate salient methods of reducing it. Without this information, it is difficult to identify geographic areas that are showing rapidly declining trends in early marriage. That makes determining the effectiveness of certain programming challenging because disparate data from various agencies and ministries make it that much more difficult to replicate successful interventions elsewhere.  By connecting and analyzing previous studies, ICRW, in partnership with UNICEF, will provide agencies and ministries with the information necessary to determine how best to approach changing marriage practices in regions throughout India. The goals of this project are to:
  • Analyze existing quantitative data and compile and review supporting literature in order to map rates of early marriage and identify key correlates of early marriage based on districts in India. 
  • Facilitate platforms for dialogue, such as think tanks, among experts and agencies so they can share data, strategies and lessons about reducing childhood marriage.  
  • Build alliances with key officials from government departments, NGOs, academia and the private sector in order to disseminate findings and encourage mobilization in various sectors.
  • Use the input from think tanks and alliances in order to create a strategic model for scaling up early marriage interventions, with an emphasis on incorporating programs and initiatives currently operate in isolation.
Until February 2015

ICRW to Co-Host Panel with Girl Rising

ICRW will be partnering with Girl Rising to co-host a panel, focused on gender-based violence and early marriage, at the UK's Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict,


Tara Abrahams
Girl Rising

Sarah Degnan Kambou,
International Center for Research on Women

Tue, 06/10/2014 - 3:30pm - 4:30pm
ExCel London
Royal Victoria Dock 1 Western Gateway
United Kingdom

Priti Prabhughate

Technical Specialist, Gender and HIV

Dr. Priti Prabhughate is a Senior Technical Specialist at the International Center for Research on Women’s (ICRW), Asia Regional Office. In this role, she functions as a thematic lead on HIV-related research, by designing studies on HIV and parallel topics such as stigma and discrimination. She also provides technical support across teams in managing projects, developing tools, and supporting data evaluation and analysis.  

Priti has more than seven years of research experience in the fields of HIV/AIDS, sexuality, stigma and discrimination, gender-based violence and sexual health – with a special focus on working with sexual minority communities in India. She has experience in building capacity, designing and conducting research with community researchers using participatory learning tools, and using evidence to conduct advocacy with stakeholders, such as health providers and law enforcement.

Priti also brings extensive training in psychology and social work, which equips her with a psychosocial perspective in understanding various phenomena. Her training in human behavior and application of its various theories to research helps her conceptualize research topics in a broad ecological framework. It is this aspect of her work that she is most enthusiastic about since it allows her to conceptualize, plan and analyze all of her research activities at multiple levels from the individual to the community level to the structural level.

ICRW’s approach to women’s empowerment is particularly resonant for Priti as a researcher. Her various research projects on HIV and on stigma in particular, have framed gender as a structural factor that disempowers women and discriminates against women at multiple levels.

Prior to joining ICRW in 2011, Priti worked with the Mumbai community-based organization Humsafar Trust, a male sexual health agency that seeks to prevent HIV among the gay, bisexual and transgender population. She functioned in multiple roles during her professional career at Humsafar, from counselor to ultimately leading the research unit at Humsafar Trust, where she played a pivotal role in guiding setting up IRB at the organization and developing proposals to international donors for research on sexual minority communities.

During her career, Priti has worked with international donors such as the National Institutes of Mental Health and United Nations Development Program as well as Indian government departments such as the National AIDS Control Organization and local partners, including Humsafar Trust, Swasti and St. Xavier’s College.

Contact Priti at pprabhughate@icrw.organd follow her on Twitter @pritiprabhughate


HIV and AIDS, Violence Against Women, Advocacy and Policy Engagement

Languages Spoken: 

English (fluent), Hindi (fluent), Marathi (fluent), Konkani (fluent). Kannada (proficient), Gujarati (proficient) and German (proficient). 


Priti holds a doctorate in social work from the University of Illinois-Chicago and a master’s in social work from Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai. She also holds a master’s in psychiatric social work from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences in Bangalore, and a bachelor’s in psychology from Mumbai University.

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